Needs Analysis

Setting the context

Aim: to define the contents of the IO2 (Toolkit) according to the needs of our target groups & to identify the primary areas of focus along with the type(s) of resources (for educational purposes) that are going to be included in the toolkit.

Target group: migrants & refugees, trainers & educators & organisations.

Methodology: mixed, qualitative & quantitative data collection & analysis, eg. interviews (virtual or face-to-face), questionnaires, desk research or a combination of the methods.

Sample: availability & ease of access, convenience sample.

Migrants & Refugees

Participants: 34 in total, 16 of them from the Middle East, Asia or Africa & 18 of them from Ukraine.

Learning new things: All of them interested, through:
• hands-on & repetitive activities, daily activities in their communities (cooking, cleaning, playing, etc.),
• writing,
• reading books, magazines & newspapers,
• exchanging information with other people, practicing with people who know more, engaging in conversation with native speakers & working with them for language learning,
• internet, searching for information online, using different apps, YouTube videos,
• with an educator, meetings in person, classes near home &
• online/ offline lessons (seminars, webinars, meetings, training, etc.)

Time dedicated to learning: differentiated preferences:
• daily: 1-6 h
• weekly: 1-4 h
• free time

Digital device: smartphones, laptops, PCs, TVs.

Internet access: the majority (problems with the stability of the connection).

Learning resources: mostly online resources, but some prefer either offline or both.

Learning resources: prevalent types of resources:
• videos (tutorials, testimonials etc.),
• books, articles, databases etc.,
• audio media (podcasts, songs etc.), song singing with educators,
• games (bingo, twister, “who am I”),
• proposed activities,
• infographics, images, etc.,
• online courses,
• other: documentaries, crafts making, draws, classes with an educator, translated texts, articles, fairy tales, stories & cartoons

Employers’ resources: all of them, about:
• topics related to the workplace, the organisation & the facilities,
• information about the domain &
• information about the job of interest, the job title, the duties/responsibilities, the necessary vocabulary, the tools/toolkits & security.

Topics of interest: all of them, about:
• language learning resources,
• diversity, social inclusion, and labour rights,
• workplace related resources,
• ecology and sustainability,
• development of green competences,
• digital skills’ development,
• life skills and experiences.

“Ecology”, “Sustainability” and “Green economy”: the majority has no knowledge (a few have more concrete knowledge) & would be interested in learning more, most of them are interested in working in the field (safe environment & well-paid jobs).

“Experience in “Green economy sector”: Some of them have experience (fields, agriculture, gardens, fishing), a great number don’t have any.

“Importance of “Green economy sector”: important topic worldwide for the preservation of planet & natural resources, local agriculture production & lower prices, reduction of food waste & waste, creation of new jobs & specialisations & reduction of unemployment. Doubts about feasibility (human rights & fair wages).

Difference in importance (host country & country of origin): because of priorities & needs, in terms of environment, natural resources, consumption, waste production, gas emissions, recycling of clothes, bags, shoes & furniture.

Trainers & Educators

Participants: 15 in total, 11 of them with experience in teaching migrants from the Middle East, Asia or Africa & 7 of them with experience in teaching refugees from Ukraine.

Experience teaching refugees/migrants: most of them (in voluntary or official settings).

Educational materials:
• organisation’s material (manuals), material from the official educational curriculum & relevant projects,
• photocopies from language learning books, books & translations in students’ native languages,
• interactive games (bingo & twister)
• powerpoint presentations,
• internet resources (exercises, worksheets, pictures, audio, videos, applications for language practice, material from digital platforms (canva & twinkl),
• online courses.

Course/ resources:
• most of them use a specific course (suggested by their organisation or their own lesson plan), with adjustments (students’ needs) & the addition of material (interactive tools, internet resources, country’s official curriculum, books, websites),
• not a specific course (inspiration from previous projects, adaptation of online resources from Twinkl, Pinterest, YouTube, Tiktok, from books & worksheets),
• online courses (Google Meet, sending invitations, the material & homework),
• big groups (combination of resources & materials),
• small groups (specific course or resource for personalised teaching),
• groups with high levels of literacy & pre-existing knowledge (knowledge of smart devices’ use).

Use of materials:
• interactively,
• complementary to planned lesson,
• following students’ needs (adjusting the material, adding exercises & activities on the spot, creating notes, body language, examples, dictionaries & interpretation for deepening into theory, interactive resources),
• introducing new topics,
• checking existing knowledge,
• as icebreakers & energizers &
• to combine theory with practice (workshops inspired by everyday life & games).

Homework assignment: depends on group of learners & motivation, no homework assignment because of lack of time, lack of suitable infrastructure on behalf of students, difficulty practising unsupervised.

Outdoor/ Hands-on learning:
• most of them prefer practical learning (activities based on practice, outdoor activities to complement theoretical learning, memory games, following directions/instructions & communication during daily life activities),
• some of them prefer the traditional teaching style in a classroom (activities & discussion),
• authentic situations to cover students’ multiple needs (tea & light meal sessions, participation in festivals).

Effectiveness of resources (different types of students: illiterate, unschooled, non-reader/non-writer, schooled in country of birth): depends on country of origin (school system differences & level of mandatory education).

Effectiveness of resources (different types of students: illiterate, unschooled, non-reader/non-writer, schooled in country of birth):
• all types of students: graphics, videos, games, books & printed material,
• beginners: images, pictures with text explanations, audio-visual material, role-playing & activities encouraging body language expression,
• young adults & no previous education: practical, interactive, physical activities encouraging play (development of values & emotions) & workshops (development of creativity, nonverbal free expression),
• some language knowledge: theoretical classes providing information & resources for bureaucratic procedures.

Online or offline resources: mixture of both
• offline: avoid technical difficulties (bad internet connection, limitations of infrastructure), keep a better track of students’ progress, students not being familiar with online environments, create safe spaces & be more attentive to students’ creations for boosting their self-esteem,
• online: convenience, flexibility, can be adapted easily (especially during online classes) & printed material is expensive.

Professional development (types of resources):
• videos (tutorials, testimonials etc.),
• infographics, images etc.,
• books, articles, databases, etc.,
• games,
• proposed activities (experiential learning),
• audio media (podcasts, songs, etc.),
• online courses,
• other: discussions with students to detect needs, testing of different methods.

Professional development (devices): laptop, PC, tablet & smartphone.

Professional development (time distributed to learning): depending on personal needs:
• daily through practice & 30 to 2 h
• weekly: 2 – 10 h

Professional development (“Ecology”, “Sustainability” and “Green economy”): not enough knowledge & interest in learning.

Professional development (Topics of interest):
• Experiences and life skills,
• Diversity, social inclusion, and labour rights,
• Ecology and sustainability,
• Development of green skill,
• Development of digital skills,
• Resources related to the workplace,
• Language learning resources.

Learning about “Green economy” through language learning:
• a number of factors to be considered (students’ interests, abilities, experience & the specifics of each situation),
• suitable for students of different levels and abilities,
• a number of prerequisites (thematic vocabulary, avoiding difficult & abstract terms, suitable facilities, means, budget & resources on behalf of the educational organisations, specific good practices & existing examples),
• aim: to enhance employment in rural areas,
• Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) method (students of different levels & abilities, specialised training for the educators & adaptation to each organisation),


Participants: 10 in total.
• 8 of them with experience in employing migrants/refugees & 2 of them with no experience in the employment of migrants/refugees,
• 8 of them with experience in employing migrants/refugees from the Middle East, Asia & Africa & 2 of them from Ukraine.

Experience: the majority has experience employing migrants/refugees.
• jobs: translators, trainers, intercultural mediators, land workers (on gardens), workers in the field of tourism & desk jobs in the context of AMIF projects related to migrants/refugees,
• motive: need for a flexible & willing employee, confidence in performing work tasks, representation of the group of migrants/refugees in working team (related projects), competence, facilitating the communication with other migrants/refugees, the feeling of offering & helping a non-native person, dedication, adaptability, integration & bad experience with local employees.

Experience: good experiences in general (professionalism, the collaboration & the response to the presented tasks).
• challenges: delays in submitting & processing the employment applications, long bureaucratic procedures & the language barrier (key for efficient communication & mastering of the given instructions).

Skills: depend on the position & its characteristics: willingness to perform required tasks & learn, orientation to high quality, willpower, punctuality, open mindedness, capacity to be welcoming & respectful to others, ability to transfer & teach the professional & technical skills they acquired to others, soft skills, communication skills, teamwork skills, organisational skills, adaptability/flexibility skills, technical/computer/ICT skills, self-management skills, work experience, related studies, driving licences.

Difference in skills (migrants/refugees & native employees): related to language, acquired training or work experience in specific field, understanding of public services, legal immigration procedures, way of life between home & host country.
• no difference: job performance (more efforts to communicate & express themselves), more dedicated & attentive to directions.

Necessary assistance (work in the field): legal assistance, professional assistance, language training, counselling, documentation assistance, training regarding working in diverse & multicultural workplaces, technical assistance, psychological & moral support (time for recovery & adjustment).

Tools: video tutorials, pictures, images, info packs, graphics, practical tests, standard questionnaires/interviews, skills’ tests, periodical psychological examinations, support groups, apprenticeships, practice (experiential learning), constant communication & exchange of working techniques between home & host country.
• not a specific training: employees selected based on existing abilities & experiences & more personalised, less professional tools.

Training opportunities: most of them offer training opportunities (depending on their field, their staff & their financial capacity)
• fields: language classes, how to use technology for language learning, STEM education, specialised pedagogical training, communication & PR, participating in mobilities, agriculture & fishing training, customer service, intercultural communication.

Tools preference:
• videos (tutorials, testimonials etc.),
• books, articles, databases etc.,
• online courses,
• proposed activities,
• infographics, images etc.,
• games,
• audio media (podcasts, songs etc.).

• language learning resources,
• diversity, social inclusion, and labour rights,
• life skills and experiences,
• workplace related resources,
• development of green competences,
• digital skills’ development,
• ecology and sustainability.