Country situation

Migration in Romania

After the Romanian Revolution (December 1989), the country presented an increase in immigration, mostly of medical students and business entrepreneurs from countries such as Jordan, Iran, Egypt, and China. However, after Romania joined the EU in 2007, the migration trend reversed.
Nowadays, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM)1, with more than 4 million Romanians living outside the country, Romania ranks 17th among countries of origin of migration worldwide. The ratio between the Romanian population that migrated outside the country and that of another nationality that migrated to Romania is approximately 6 to 1, the number of Romanian emigrants being 6 times higher than the number of foreign immigrants who were in the country at the end of 2020…

Migration in France

When entering the country, migrants go through both a security and a medical check. Once the first step is completed, migrants submit an asylum application whose investigation will be given by OFPRA (French Office of Refugees and Stateless people Protection, 2023). Meanwhile migrants obtain an official authorization to stay in France or a residence permit, OFII (French Office of Immigration and Integration) is in charge of the identification of their education level. In relation to the CIR (Republic Integration Contract) (Service Public, 2021) and according to the results of the taken tests, either migrants must attend mandatory French classes or are exempted to pass the A1 level (CECRL).
Several criteria determine the access to and right to stay France for migrants…

Migration in Greece

Greece is one of the main gates to the EU for migrants from Asia and Africa seeking to flee war and economic hardships in their countries. According to the UNHCR (2022), 147,420 refugees and 22,117 asylum-seekers were present in Greece in June 2022. In total, 14.000 individuals were estimated to have entered Greece that year, either via land or maritime borders. Of these, the majority were men (52.2%), followed by
minors (30.4%) and women (17.4%).1 Among the 28,320 asylum applications that were received in 2021, most concerned individuals from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, Bangladesh, Turkey, Iraq and Somalia. Important delays in treating applications have been reported and 60% of the applications were granted international protection status, refugee or subsidiary protection status…

Migration in Italy

Geography makes Italy a natural gateway to the European Union, especially for those coming from Africa, the Middle East or Southern Asia. In fact, two out of the three main maritime migration routes to the EU, through the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, end in Italy. The Balkan route (by land) is currently the most used path to the European Union. While it arrives in Germany, it may include a detour to Trieste, which
lies at the border of Slovenia.
Thus, it may not come as a surprise that Italy is the fourth recipient of asylum applications in Europe, with 53.6102 applications in 2021, after Germany (190.545), France (120.685) and Spain (65.295). So far, from 2018 to 2021, 177.950 persons have obtained refugee status in Italy…

Migration in Spain

Given the geographical location of Spain , the country has experienced continuous migration from Northern Africa and Western sub Saharan Africa to its Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts.
Immigration to Spain increased significantly since the end of the 20th century due to its rapid economic growth. Since the year 2000, Spain has presented one of the highest annual immigration rates in the world. At its highest point, in 2010, migrants represented 12.2% of the Spanish population. Spain is also the tenth country on the planet in terms of absolute number of migrants.
Upon the arrival of the economic crisis, the migrant population in the country dropped between 2011 and 2017, down to 9.8% of the national population before increasing again to 11.5% of the national population in 2021…

Migrants’ Integration into the Labour Market and Ecological